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- in a pair of scissors or shears it is the blade that is considered
to be on top, and which is also attached to the thumb bow.
- process of steel production, in which the furnace is lined
with a siliceous refractory material and which requires low phosphorous pig iron
since phosphorous is not removed.
- a set of shears that contains a device, usually a nut and bolt,
so that the amount and strength with which they are opened and closed could be changed,
or adjusted, to suit different needs.
- a process that changes the properties of a metal and some
alloys, like hardness, strength, ductility, formability, magnetic properties and
many others by running the metal through a number of temperature treatments. Through
all of the procedures the metal is kept in its solid state. The aging cycle consists
of heating (also known as annealing) the metal so it becomes supersaturated, then
swift cooling (also known as quenching) and then heating it again to a lower temperature.
- process of baking (sinter), pressing (briquettes)
or rolling into little balls (pellets) and hardening by heat of limestone and iron
ore from dust into larger pieces for easier transportation.
- natural change in the physical properties of some metals, which occurs
after the final product stands at room temperatures after final cold working or
heat treatment and is often synonymous with the term: age hardening.
- a mixture of iron and/or other elements, which contains more
than 1.65% of manganese, over 0.5% of silicon, more than 0.6% of copper or minute
quantities of other metals and elements. Many different properties of steel, including
strength, hardness, chemical resistance and durability, can be created or enhanced
by substituting elements, also known as alloying elements, in the mixture with materials
like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium and/or tungsten.
- a process used to recover metals from ore and in electrolytic
coating where iron and acid are continually neutralized and precipitated by the
addition of an alkali to the solution.
ALUMINUM KILLED STEEL (SPECIAL KILLED)
- steel in which the amount of oxygen
has been reduced to a minimum, by deoxidizing it with aluminum, so that when it
[steel] solidifies no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen.
- heat treatment, which produces metals that are more malleable.
- a metallic element (symbol Sb), which occurs in nature in multiple
structural forms, most common of which is a bluish silver-white crystal, hard, extremely
brittle and lustrous in appearance, with a high melting and boiling points. Most
often used in alloys and flame-proofing compounds.
- cutting action that occurs when the "A" or top blade at the
end of its descent lands on a flat surface, or an anvil, located on the edge of
the "B" or bottom blade. Usually found on pruning shears.
- one of the largest types of stainless steel, most resistant
to corrosion due to its high content of nickel and chromium, with exceptional ductility,
excellent performance in very cold temperatures and superior weld-ability. It is
hardened and strengthened through the cold working or changing the shape by the
use of stress at low temperatures instead of heating.
- in a pair of scissors or shears it is the blade that is considered
to be on the bottom, and which is also attached to the bow for one or more fingers.
- Just as the name suggests it is the process of shaping the metal
into the different angles necessary to create the finished product.
- these trimmers have specially designed bent handles that
allow for the blades to cut the material on a flat surface while keeping the cutter's
hands elevated comfortably off the surface.
- A rectangular form of steel that requires further processing, usually
2 to 7 inches in size. This form is normally obtained through a continuous cast,
and later on finished by heating and forging.
- an impression or die that is used in the processes when the finished
shape of the part cannot be made in a single action.
BLUE STEEL (BLUING)
- is named so, for the blue-black color of magnetite,
the black oxide of iron, which covers the steel as a result of "passivation" process.
Also known as "hot blueing," it is a process of conversion coating, which creates
an extremely thin layer, no thicker than 0.0001 inches, of rust and corrosion resistant
coating, without significantly adding to the thickness of the final instrument.
The magnetite coating is created by heating the steel to a precise temperature in
a bluing furnace or on a smaller scale by dunking the finished, uncoated parts and
instruments into a solution of water heated to the boiling point and either a mixture
of potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate or nitrates and chromates. To keep the level
of rust and corrosion resistance, the finished instruments must be oiled on regular
- on scissors or shears the handles attached to the blades, through
which the cutter threads his or her fingers.
- The immobile portion of a die that consists of two parts.
- One of the most widely used of copper-zinc alloys that consist of
70% copper and 30% zinc. It is so popular because it is highly malleable and ductile,
however fair for resistance. Though it is not very good for hot-working or machining
properties it is excellent for cold-working, soft-soldering and silver alloy brazing.
- An alloy that consists of 90% copper and 10% tin. It is favored
more than brass or copper because it is equal or even better than both in ductility;
at the same time it is stronger than either.
- cutting action that occurs when the "A" or top blade and
the "B" or the bottom blade pass each other. Most cutting tools utilize such action.
- a metal alloy, made up primarily of carbon and iron, which
may also contain extremely minute traces of other elements like manganese, silicon,
sulfur and phosphorous, which will have no impact on the qualities of the alloy.
By melting the steel with the carbon, it attains the qualities of the carbon's structure,
the larger the content of carbon in the alloy, the more qualities of carbon are
attained by the carbon steel, and the alloys with low amounts of carbon retain most
properties of iron. By these changing qualities that depend on the amount of carbon
in the alloy, carbon steel has been separated into four main types:
- Low (also known as Mild),
- High and
- Very High
Increased amounts of carbon in the alloy increases its strength, hardness, wear and
impact resistance at the same time it decreases its temperature resistance, malleability,
ductility and lowers steel's melting point. Higher grade carbon steel produces tools
that have a much longer life cycle, but it also becomes more difficult to weld and
shape. So not to lose its superior qualities, carbon steel is often shaped by using
CASTING / CAST (HAND CAST)
- the process during which a certain form is created
by taking the shape of a specifically shaped die or mold, which is filled with molten
metal and is allowed to cool and solidify. A number of different casting methods
exist that are designed specifically to achieve the best results depending on the
material used to make the shape, while multitudes of different casting methods could
be used for steel shapes, die casting is favored for the non-ferrous metals.
- A chemical element (symbol Cr), one of the primary ingredients
in production of stainless steel. Most prized as an alloying element for its corrosion
- a process during which a form is covered (plated) with a
layer of chromium. Negatively charged molecules acquire the positively charged molecules
of chromium. Depending on the needs, by regulating the voltage and speed with which
the shape goes through the process the thickness of the plating is easily regulated.
Due to the nature of this plating process the covering is uniform and is able to
cover all indentations and changes in the surface of the shape. This coating reduces
wear, corrosion and increases the temperature resistance of the plated form. It
is durable and isn't washed off by water or most solvents; in addition it also doesn't
Also known as Dry or Solid film lubricant it serves as a lubricating film for dry,
low-friction uses. When a damaged part of chrome plated steel is exposed to oxygen,
which usually oxidizes the metal and causes corrosion, the chromium forms a protective
film and prevents corrosion.
- covering of a product made of lower quality steel (carbon or lower
alloy) with a coat of stainless steel. This process gives the surface of the product
increased corrosion resistance while keeping the overall price lower than that of
a product made completely of stainless steel. Pouring the molten stainless steel
around the product while it is still in the mold, rolling carbon steel between two
plates of stainless steel at high temperature and then making products out of the
resulting material, bonding sheets of stainless steel to the surface of the product
are some of the different ways in which cladding is achieved.
- a mechanical instrument usually made out of metal that is used
for clipping or trimming nails. In shape there are two main types of clippers, those
that use a lever action and those that look like pliers. In addition clippers are
specialized by the shape of their blades for use on fingers or toes, with convex,
or curved inward, ended blades for toenails and concave, or rounded outward, ended
blades for finger nails.
- a special configuration that allows scissors or shears to cut
(or clip) the material with the points and is most often used in the garment industry
or office shears.. In this arrangement the "A" or top blade has a sharp point and
the end of the "B" or the bottom blade is set at an angle.
- The process of covering of a metal (steel or aluminum) with another
material to enhance its quality or properties.
- A piece of metal (steel or aluminum) that has been covered
either on one or both sides with another material to enhance its quality or properties.
Some of the materials that are often used in coating of metals are: laminates, adhesives,
anticorrosive finishes, enamel and paints.
- A chemical element (symbol Co), one of the ingredients in production
of tool steel (super) alloys. Metal, gray in color with magnetic properties, it
is most prized for its ability to harden iron and has good corrosion resistance.
- purified of gasses by long heating, this is a processed form of coal
that serves as the basic fuel for the blast furnaces in which iron is smelted (melted
- When metal is heated so that it may be poured into a needed
shape, its structure is weakened, and its physical properties, like strength and
durability decrease. In cold forging, metals are not heated, but are rather forged
into the desired shape under tremendous pressure. Though the amount of pressure
needed to achieve this is extremely high the benefits are also great. The final
product is forged right away into its final shape, and the metal usually stays stronger
than during heating, thereby keeping its structure and consistency.
- To make sheets of steel thinner without decreasing its strength
and hardness characteristics through heating, many mills will instead run the sheets
through two rolls that are set very close to each other and press the sheet into
the thinner shape. Very similar to cold forging and cold working, a cold reduced
sheet of steel could improve in strength and hardness, and will be stronger than
the same size sheet of steel that was achieved through heating.
COLD WORKING (ROLLING)
- When steel is heated in order to be poured into
the needed mold it often looses its strength and consistency because during heating
the chemical bonds on the molecular level are broken. Though the steel hardens back,
it does not regain its structure completely. In cold working steel, the metal is
not heated, but is rather rolled, hammered or stretched into the needed shape, which
allows the final product to retain its strength and hardness. The inner structure
of the steel is changed by cold working to enhance its strength and hardness.
- A chemical element (symbol Cb) outside of US known as Niobium
(symbol Nb), one of the ingredients in production of steel, particularly important
in creation of high strength, low-alloy grades.
- A process of steel casting during which molten metal
continuously flows straight from the furnace and is carefully poured through a tundish
into the water cooled copper form or caster, and is cut straight away into slabs,
billets or blooms. This process allows steel to solidify in a short amount of time
and avoids the needs of additional rolling and forming, which helps the steel keeps
its structure uniform and allows it to retain its chemical and mechanical characteristics.
- A chemical element (symbol Cu) that has been discovered and used
since 8,000 B.C. Metal, with distinctive reddish color and bright shining appearance
that is very ductile and malleable. It is most prized for its high heat conductivity,
exceptional electric conductivity and superior corrosion resistance. Copper is often
used on its own, as a main ingredient in production of bronze and brass, as well
as an alloy with other metals like nickel and beryllium.
- process of deterioration and reduction of structural integrity
of metal which could be caused by oxidation by atmosphere, moisture or agents in
a chemical reaction.
- as the name suggests blades on a pair of shears or scissors
that are curved either to the left or right. Mainly used in the poultry processing
CUTLERY GRADE STEEL
- See Carbon Steel.
- During different procedures through which metal is cast, bent,
cut and molded into its final form, the edges often become rough and jagged; this
is referred to as burrs or protrusions. Deburring is the process of removing those
burrs and smoothing sharp, coarse edges.
- a process of removing a layer of oxide of iron that usually forms
on top of the hot steel as it reacts with oxygen, also known as scale. Before scale
is physically removed it's usually cracked off by passing steel through roughened
rolls, after which the scale is removed with a strong spray of water. Sometimes
before being put through the rolls, steel is pre-treated with wet sand or salt.
- The misalignment, as well as the amount of the misalignment of
the top and bottom forms of the die.
- in order to give blades a shiny, lustrous appearance and
provide them with durability, corrosion (rust) and stain resistance, they may be
covered with two coats of different materials that provide these different characteristics.
The first layer of nickel is used to provide the luster and then it is covered in
a second layer of chrome to provide the enhancement of the physical qualities.
DOUBLE SHARP POINTS
- on a pair of scissors or shears an arrangement where
the tips of both the "A" or top and "B" or bottom blades are shaped to create a
sharp point to allow for very precise cutting of miniature details or in spots lacking
space to maneuver. Widely used in embroidery work.
- or malleability, an ability of metal, and steel in particular,
to be hammered, drawn out, and otherwise physically permanently re-shaped without
breakage and with no heating, essentially at room temperature.
- a type of stainless steel that possesses structure that is a mixture
(or doubling) of two steels, austenitic and ferritic. This structure was created
to produce steel that is stronger than what each of the original metals offered
on their own. The duplex contains high amounts of chromium and lesser amounts of
nickel to provide high resistance to formation of cracks that develop when steel
is subjected to a combination of stress and corrosion.
EDGE-CONDITIONING (EDGE ROLLING)
- During different procedures through which
metal is cast, bent, cut and molded into its final form, the edges often become
rough and jagged and form burrs or protrusions. Edge-conditioning is the process
of removing those burrs and smoothing those sharp, coarse edges by rolling the strip
- galvanization of steel, usually cold rolled or
black plate, which is achieved by electro-deposition.
ELECTROLYTIC TIN COATED SHEETS (ETCS)
- coating of sheets of steel, usually
cold rolled, in tin achieved by electro-deposition through an acid or alkaline process.
ELECTROLYTIC TIN PLATE (ETP)
- a black plate of steel, usually light gauge,
low-carbon, and cold reduced, which is coated in Tin through electro-deposition.
- an electrochemical process during which a thin layer of
metal is selectively removed from the interior surface of the stainless steel components.
The process is used to remove flaws and surface impurities, clean, smooth, brighten
and passivate the final product.
- See Silicon Electrical Steel.
- process of coating steel, or plating
it with a layer of zinc by using electrolytic deposition. During the process, positively
charged molecules of zinc get attached to the negatively charged sheet of steel
passing through the plating area. The thickness of the coating is controlled by
changing the electric charge or the speed through which the steel passes the plating
area. Though this process is more expensive than hot-dipped galvanizing, it provides
much more accuracy and precision over the thickness of the coating layer of zinc
- a surface, metallic, pottery, etc, to which enamel, a glassy substance
or paint is applied by fusion. Enamel comes in various colors and dries to a hard,
glossy finish. For comfort, protection of the handles and for decorative purposes,
the handles (the bow) on scissors or shears are often enameled.
- Alloys based on the rare materials such as zirconium, niobium,
hafnium, and tantalum.
EXTRA BLUNT POINTS
- on a pair of scissors or shears an arrangement where
the tips of both the "A" or top and "B" or bottom blades have very rounded shapes
as a safety measure to prevent the blades from puncturing the material. Widely used
for work with children and in sewing.
- The process of shaping material by forcing it to flow through
a shaped opening in a die.
- one of the largest types of stainless steel that contains a standard
amount of chromium steel and very little nickel. In comparison to the austenitic
stainless steel, due to the absence of nickel, the ferritic stainless steel has
lower corrosion resistance and strength, but is well suited for work in high-temperature
- based on or related to iron, from Latin for iron - ferrum.
- a raw material commonly used in production of steel that contains
iron and other metals. It is often used in different stages during the production
process, such as desulfurization, deoxidation as well as when adding strength to
the steel product.
- An alloy often used as a raw material in production of stainless
steel, and consisting of 72% of chromium and iron.
- the feel and appearance of the surface of the finished steel product
after the final treatment has been applied.
- the ability to make finished, assembled scissors and shears cut
a single stroke with an even, clean cut for the full length of the blades without
any unevenness, faltering or hesitation.
- See Nail File.
- A curved shape that is "filled into" the inner corner of an object
to increase its strength at the corner, as well as to make it smoother to touch
and improve the object's appearance; also used to expand the life of a forging die.
- During casting, two dies are pressed together to create a shape from
the molten metal, the excess metal that flows out between the dies is called flash.
- During casting, two dies are pressed together to create
a shape from the molten metal, the amount of excess metal that flows out between
the dies at the flash line is called flash extension.
- See Matte Finish.
- During casting, two dies are pressed together to create a shape
from the molten metal, the line where excess metal starts flowing out between the
dies beyond the part is called the flash line.
- Type of steel forms, which include plates, strips and
sheets that are created by passing ingots or slabs between a pair of rolled steel.
- In steel production and metallurgy flux is used as the iron, or metal,
cleaning agent. A substance made up of limestone and lime is used to start a reaction
with the molten metal, during which nonmetallic impurities combine with limestone
and float above the heavier (cleaned) liquefied iron.
- process of producing a semi finished steel form, of a predefined
shape, from wrought metal blanks, hot or cold, by use of hammering, pressing, rolling,
upsetting or a combination of these techniques.
- an improved galvanization coating, that consists of 95% free zinc,
and 5% mixture of aluminum and traces of other metals that provides for better corrosion
protection than the original, and a lighter weight for the coating. The lighter
coating allows for better malleability of the final material.
- The thickness of sheet metal.
GALVANEAL COATING (GALVANNEALED)
- an extra light coating of zinc is applied
to the hot-dipped galvanized soft sheet of steel to produce a coating made up of
only of zinc-iron alloys. It is dull gray in appearance. To improve results in future
painting, the steel is passed through an oven at approximately 1200 degrees Fahrenheit.
- metal, most often steel, that has been coated with a layer of
zinc to provide corrosion resistance and improve the adhesive quality when painting.
The methods of application are electro-galvanizing and hot-dipped galvanizing.
- A chemical element (symbol Au), a rare, precious metal that is the
softest and most malleable. It is highly prized for its rarity and distinctive yellow,
shiny appearance. Gold does not react with oxygen or water and is not susceptible
to tarnish or corrosion.
- Gold plating or applying a thin layer of gold to a metal part.
In grooming instruments gold provides the non-reactive, clean and highly hypoallergenic
material that is very safe to use on skin. Though sometimes used for decorative
purposes most often gold plating is used on various electronic and electrical instruments
to provide highly reliable connections, semiconductors and circuits that must not
be influenced by any impurities and characteristics of other metals.
- a process of forging or forming a piece of metal by repeated
blows on it with a hammer.
- steel that has been treated using heat or cold processes to improve
its resistance to scratching, indentations, penetration, bending, stretching and
other physical deformations.
- process that increases steel's resistance to various types of
physical deformation, such as scratching, indentations, penetration, stretching
and bending. Hardening alters steel's inner structure, which is achieved through
various methods, such as heat treatment, which subjects steel to a series of temperature
changes and cold working, during which steel is physically worked on at a low temperature.
- the degree to which steel, or other metals, are capable of withstanding
being deformed under various physical actions against it, such as scratching, indentations,
penetration, stretching and bending.
- a process that consists of a series of heating and cooling
procedures, applied to steel and other metals in order to alter its various characteristics
by modifying its inner structure. By varying the temperature to which steel is raised
or lowered, the number of repetitions of the processes as well as the time it is
allowed to remain in a particular state produces different results, and is most
commonly used to increase strength, ductility, or both.
- as the name suggests a type of steel with higher than
usual content of carbon, more than 0.3%. The higher the amounts of carbon the more
it decreases steel's malleability and the more it increases its toughness and hardness.
HIGH POLISHED FINISH
- Finish applied to various metal products, specifically
stainless steel, by passing the product through a number of polishing procedures
to give the final product a shiny, mirror-like appearance.
HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY (HSLA)
- a type of steel alloy, with increased hardness,
strength, and improved resistance to corrosion that is obtained by adding various
alloying elements, alone and in combination, such as chromium, columbium, manganese,
nickel, silicon, titanium, tungsten and vanadium, in low amounts, less than 5%.
HOT-ROLLED STEEL (HOT BAND)
- steel that is passed through a hot roll mill
at a temperature high enough to form and reduce the thickness of steel without increasing
- process of coating steel, or plating it, with a
layer of zinc by passing a piece of steel of various shapes through a bath of molten
zinc to get coated and then it is "wiped" with a stream of air to achieve the needed
thickness of the coating. Though this process is cheaper than electro-galvanizing
it provides less accuracy and precision over the thickness of the coating layer
of zinc applied.
- process of producing steel forms, of a predefined shape and
grain structure, using a drop hammer on a furnace-heated piece of wrought steel
and other metals. Thought the most expensive method of production it is also expected
to deliver the best results when creating quality tools and instruments.
HOT PRESS FORGING
- process of producing steel forms, of a predefined shape
and grain structure, by applying pressure to a furnace-heated piece of wrought steel,
and other metals, in a closed-impression die.
IMPRESSION DIE FORGING
- most common of the processes that produce steel
forms, of a predefined shape, by placing a piece of steel, or another metal, between
two dies and using pressure bringing the dies together to force the metal to completely
fill the dies and take their shape.
- a large piece, around 25 to 30 ton in weight, of semi-finished metal,
steel in particular, that slowly solidifies after being poured into a mold and is
ready to be further formed and rolled.
- in a pair of scissors or shears a device placed on the pivot
that allows user to adjust the tension between the blades and the overall quality
of the run.
- A chemical elements (symbol Fe), main ingredient in production of
steel, as well as cast and wrought iron. Metal, of a silver-white color, with magnetic
properties, that possesses high strength under various tensions, very ductile and
- a mineral mixture that contains iron in its oxidized form and
which contains iron in the amount that is sufficient to be used as the source of
iron for production of steel.
- a cutting instrument that is made up of a single, metal blade that
is attached to a handle. The blade usually constitutes a thin strip with a pointed
end, which has one of its edges, from the pointed end to the end of the blade where
the handle usually begins, sharpened to enable cutting of various materials.
- on a cutting tool, like a knife, this is the edge that is sharpened
and usually used to perform the cutting action.
LEFT- HAND SCISSORS/SHEARS
- a pair of scissors or shears that are specially
made which the loops, and the cutting action, reversed, to accommodate left-handed
- a very thin sheet of steel that has been passed through
a cold-reduction process. Most often light-gauge steel is tin or chrome-plated and
is used in the creation of food containers.
- a term used for cutting tools, like scissors and shears, that
consist of stainless steel blades and plastic handles, and are usually lighter in
weight than those blades made completely out of stainless steel.
- Type of steel with low content of carbon, less than 0.005%,
that is more malleable and pliable. This type of steel is excellent for being rolled
or drawn out into thin sheets.
- to apply a greasy or oily substance to either the finished product
or to the casting dies, to decrease fiction, to help in the initial flow of the
metal into the dies as well as to assist in removal of the final form after casting
and forging, and in some cases to protect from corrosion.
- a finish that has a dull appearance, without any luster or
polish at any angle and is also known as a flat finish. It is most often achieved
by sanding or by treating metal with rolls that have a surface mechanically, chemically
or electrically abraded to attain textures of various size and roughness.
- A chemical element (symbol Mg), used in steel desulfurization,
an alloying element for aluminum as well as in production of ductile iron. A light
metal, with a silvery appearance and moderate hardness.
- property of metals that determines how easily it deforms when
subjected to hammering or rolling. The more malleable metals are easier to form.
- A chemical element (symbol Mn), an important ingredient in production
of steel and pig iron. A hard and brittle metal, gray-white appearance.
- a type of stainless steel, an alloy, characterized by its ability
to be heat-treated to very high tensile strengths and hardness. These chromium steels
have high carbon content and almost no nickel.
- A chemical element (symbol Mo), sometimes used as a raw material
in production of some classes of stainless steel. A metal of silvery-gray color,
it is resistant to corrosion and enhances stainless steel's strength, as well as
its rust and corrosion resistance properties.
- a high-grade cutlery steel that forms an extremely tough
and durable structure when hardened, creating very durable, long lasting tools.
- a small instrument, usually a flat piece of cardboard or metal,
that has grains of various materials attached to it, could be on one or on both
sides of the file. Depending on the size of the grain of the nail file it is used
for shaping, trimming and/or smoothing of the edges of the fingernails.
- See Clippers.
- A chemical element (symbol Ni), used as a raw material for some
types of stainless steel. A hard metal, of silver-white color that is primarily
used as an alloying element in stainless steel production due to its strength, ductility,
malleability and corrosion resistance characteristics. Nickel also possesses some
magnetic properties and is sometimes used to plate, or coat, various metals as preparation
for being plated with chrome.
- Nickel plating or applying a coat of nickel to a steel part
using an electric current. Besides producing a shiny surface on the finished product
it is often used to fill in slight dents and is used as a base for chrome plating.
- a variety of cutting tools for nipping, or trimming, used for wires
and in situations when only a small amount of (usually) hard material needs to be
removed. Most commonly looks like a pair of pliers with wide, sharp edges that "bite"
the material in a straight line from top and bottom.
- Chemical symbol Nb. (SEE Columbium).
- the mineral from which the metal is extracted.
OXIDATED (OXIDIZED) FINISH
- also known as patina finish and chemical conversion
coating that is achieved by creating a glossy, darker finish (or patina) by oxidizing
the surface of the metal. On bronze it is usually green and is often used in decorative
purposes to indicate age. Oxidized products are also coated in additional clear
layer to protect the finish of the product.
- a compound of an element with oxygen.
- The line where the dies come together and remove (or part)
the flash from the finished product.
- a treatment, or a coating of steel and other metals, with a
layer of oxide to increase electrical stability, reduce chemical reactivity and
protect the surface against contamination.
- the tiny particles of iron ore that are mixed with bonding clay
and then roasted into hard round spheres so that they may be fed into the blast
- a continuous process of cleaning hot-rolled steel of dirt, oil
and various oxides (rust) by uncoiling the steel and putting it through a succession
of hydrochloric acid baths. After the completion of the baths the steel is rinsed
and dried before being ready for further processing.
- a state of hot-rolled steel, usually in the form of a coil, which
is cleaned of dirt, oil and various oxides (rust) by putting it through a succession
of hydrochloric acid baths.
- A flat, relatively thick, broad piece of metal wider than 8 inches,
which is sometimes cut and sometimes rolled to achieve this shape and size.
- A chemical element (symbol Pt), that is sometimes used to coat
stainless steel. A rare metal of a gray-white color, that is rather heavy, ductile
and malleable, resistant to corrosions and is one of the precious or noble metals,
currently more precious than gold.
- in a pair of scissors or shears blades that are finished
only by buffing, and are not plated by any other materials.
- a type of stainless steel that possesses characteristics
of the martensitic steel and are even more enhanced by heat treatment to give them
an exceptional strength, hardness and high corrosion resistance. These stainless
steels have a high content of chromium and nickel and are most often utilized in
high wear and stress settings.
- also known as age hardening or dispersion hardening,
is a technique that uses heat treatment to strengthen malleable materials, by changing
the solid solubility with high temperature to create a new structure with finer
particles that stops the dislocation and therefore creation of defects in the crystal
lattice of the material. Since such defects or deformations serve to provide for
higher malleability of the material, stopping them serves to strengthen and harden
the material. During the process the solids are formed as precipitation. To accomplish
the precipitation of the needed size of particles in alloys, such as steel, they
must be kept at a high temperature for a prolonged amount of time, and this time
delay is known as aging.
- coal or natural gas that is used in various processes to
remove the oxygen from iron ore in order to produce a scrap substitute.
- in a pair of scissors or shears the two oval shaped bows that
are attached to the ends of the blades through which the user threads their fingers.
- a process in which a heated metal performed ring is placed into an
internal rolling machine, and as the walls of the rolling machine apply the pressure
the performed ring begins to take a cylindrical shape, or a ring.
- the comparative textural quality of or the "sensation" you experience
when cutting with a pair of scissors or shears, where a "good run" is one with an
even, clean cut for the full length of the blades without any unevenness, faltering
- a finish that is highly polished, sleek, matte, low to medium
lustrous in appearance that is applied to the finished product during plating.
- a layer of oxide of iron that usually forms on the top of the hot
steel as it reacts with oxygen.
- an instrument used for cutting of various materials by the action
of bringing two elongated blades, positioned one on top of the other, with the sharp
edges facing each other, together and separating them repeatedly. The top blade
is called the "A" blade and the bottom blade is referred to as the "B" blade. On
the ends of each of the blades there are loops to allow users to thread their fingers
through them and produce the cutting motion.
- on a blade a cutting edge that has a row of fine notched or sawlike
"teeth" that helps to keep certain soft or slippery materials in place while being
- 1) an elongated cutting instrument, usually 6 inches in length, or
even longer, that has an extended bow on its "B" or bottom blade and is intended
for two or more fingers;
2) a cutting action in which a flat or curved blade(s) is moving across the fixed
- A flat, thin, broad piece of metal that has been rolled to achieve
- the reduction or contraction of metal that occurs when it cools
down after being forged.
- A chemical element (symbol Si) from the carbon family of elements
that does not occur in nature in its pure form. It acts as an essential non-metallic
element in the smelting of various metals with and without iron content.
SILICON ELECTRICAL STEEL
- a type of steel created by introducing silicon
during the production of steel, with a 0.5 to 5% content of silicon and extremely
low content of any other elements. Because of high electrical resistance it possesses
- a process of heating iron-containing powder, first compacted
together by pressure, into small pellets to allow further processing.
- A piece of metal or semi-finished steel that is obtained from a hot
rolled ingot or as output from a continuous casting that is going to be further
- a piece or metal, or a blank, cut from a wrought material for forging.
- a finish accomplished by adding antimony to a hot dip bath, which
produces a naturally galvanized sheet of steel, or steel on which zinc "freezes"
SPECIAL KILLED STEEL
- See Aluminum Killed Steel.
- various stainless steels combined with certain elements,
such as chrome, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, manganese and titanium, to increase
the steels' characteristics like strength or corrosion resistance.
- a strip of steel, most often high carbon alloy, which has
high tensile properties and therefore usually used in production of springs.
- action that uses a spring, built into scissors or shears,
to add resistance and increase the power of the cutting action, and to automatically
force the blades apart when the cutting action is done.
- type of steel that is highly resistant to corrosion from
various sources, including various acids and atmospheric oxidation, with varying
content of alloying elements, but always containing more than 10% chromium. Stainless
steel usually maintains its strength even at high temperatures, is easy to maintain
and is commonly used in everything from the food industry to medical and health
- iron, (chemical element Fe), smelted with carbon, at least 0.05%
but no more than 2%, along with small amounts of manganese, silicon, sulfur, phosphorus
and other various elements. The thousands of combinations of different alloying
elements and their amounts produce widely varying characteristics that are tailored
for the specific industry and use. It's the most commonly used metal and the least
expensive to produce.
- shapes of semi-finished steel, such as slabs, billets or blooms
that are later on processed further to create finished steel products.
- a pair of shears or scissors whose thumb and elongated
bows are positioned in a straight line with the cutting blades. Usually used to
trim and cut fabrics.
- a property of steel (or other materials) that measures its capacity
to resist or handle wear, applied forces and loads without permanent deformation
of shape or structure, as well as the ability to resist stretching.
- The raw material, which is acted upon, that serves as the main
ingredient in processing of steel.
- A chemical element (symbol S), non-metal that occurs in a number
of various states in nature. Always present in steel production, often as an undesired
contaminant, but often specifically added to increase the steels' capability to
be cut or shaped using machine tools.
- also known as "high-performance specialty metals" these are
lightweight metal alloys, most often based on iron, titanium, cobalt or nickel that
were developed to withstand extremely high temperatures, severe mechanical stress
and otherwise corrosive environments.
SUPER STAINLESS STEEL
- a group of stainless steel alloys that have a significant
content of chromium, copper, nickel, or molybdenum. Commonly these steels are used
when there is a need for extra corrosion protection, strength, or heat resistance.
- a type of steel, containing 12 to 20% of chromium, up to
3% of molybdenum as well as nickel, named so because it is very appropriate for
making surgical instruments. Its chromium contents make it highly scratch and corrosion
resistant; molybdenum provides it with great hardness and helps to maintain a sharpness
of the cutting edge, while nickel gives it a highly polished, smooth finish, making
cleaning and sterilization of instruments easy and allows for prolonged use.
- The primary ore used in blast furnaces because it a naturally
occurring mineral containing less than 30% of iron. Due to high use of a higher
grade Taconite, its supplies were largely depleted in the 1940s.
- A unit of weight that has a number of different definitions depending
on the country of usage:
- Metric Ton: 1,000 kilograms or 2,204.6 pounds (1.102 short tons)
- Short (Net) Ton [US]: 2,000 pounds or 0.907 metric ton (907.18 kilogram)
- Long (Gross) Ton [British]: 2,240 pounds or 1.02 metric ton (1.12 short tons)
- process of hardening metals, including steel, by heating and
then cooling them to increase the metal's strength. The metal is re-heated and quench-hardened,
or cooled to a temperature below its point at which it transforms multiple times.
Depending on the desired final characteristics, the speed and temperature of quenching
- usually metal that was subjected to the process of tempering,
or a process of hardening metals, including steel, by heating and then cooling them
to increase the metal's strength.
- a multi-step treatment process for steel that involves heating
and quenching of steel to enhance its physical properties. Usually it is first heated
to obtain a solution of iron and carbon and then quickly cooled, or quenched to
produce a martensitic material, which is again heated from 400 to 600 degrees Celsius
and kept at that temperature until all of the carbon within martensite dissipates
to produce more hardened steel.
- the deformation displayed by bending or stretching, when
a load is applied to a material.
- also known as the Ultimate Strength and is the value of
the maximum load that a cross-sectional area of a material will handle before it
starts to deform under strain.
- process of hardening blades in cutting tools, like scissors
and shears, which, unlike case-hardening, reinforces the entire thickness of the
blade and not only the surface.
- Steel coated in a very thin layer of metallic chrome and
chromium oxide, also known as electrolytic chromium coated (or chromed) steel. The
coating is applied using chromic acid to the low-carbon steel that was cold-rolled,
using a continuous electrolytic process. Just as with tin coated steel, it is highly
corrosion resistant, and is often used in the food processing industry, however
because tin cannot be recycled and contaminates metal even in smallest quantities,
it is preferred for recycling purposes.
TIN PLATE (TINPLATE)
- a sheet of steel that is covered with a very thin
coat of pure metallic tin on both sides. This is accomplished by applying electric
current to the sheet of steel that is placed into a solution of decomposable tin
- Tin plating or applying a thin layer of tin to a steel part
is achieved when positively charged particles of tin attach to the negatively charged
piece of metal and is usually applied to steel, aluminum, brass and copper. Adjusting
the voltage and the speed with which the steel passes through the plating process
controls the thickness of the coating achieved. The coat of Tin protects metal from
oxidation, providing corrosion resistance. It also allows for great electrical conductivity
and gives metals a bright silverfish surface.
In addition to being highly pliable, providing great corrosion resistance, Tin is
safe and nontoxic, for that reason it is commonly used in the food industry.
- A chemical element (symbol Ti), primarily used as an alloy ingredient
in steel making as well on its own, especially in aerospace and aviation. Metal,
of bright white color, that is very malleable and ductile, possesses very high strength
to weight ratio, and good corrosion resistance.
- The amount of variance of any characteristic or property, such
as chemical, physical, dimensional or mechanical, from the set norm. In numeric
terms it is calculated as half the algebraic difference between the minimum and
maximum values (the limits) allowed for the characteristic.
- Method of removing sharp edges and improving the finish of the
final product by rolling it in a revolving container.
- a shallow container (or device) that looks like a bathtub.
- A chemical element (symbol W), that is mixed with various soft
metals to produce carbide tools and sometimes alloyed with steel to produce tools
resistant to scratches and abrasions. Metal, of a gray color, that is very ductile
and malleable, and so exceptionally pliable that it could be pulled into filament.
It also possesses very high tensile strength and highly resistance to atmospheric
influences and most acids.
- a small instrument for handling objects too small or delicate
to be handled by our fingers directly, usually held between the thumb and the forefinger.
Most often made out of metal and is usually used for plucking hairs, extracting
splinters and/or picking up objects. Tweezers look like a pair of small pincers,
or two blades attached to each other on one end with the other two ends used to
perform the work when the blades are squeezed in the middle.
If you'd like to learn more about the different types of tweezers and which type
might suit you better review the article about Buying Eyebrow Tweezers
- A chemical element (symbol V), mainly used as an alloying element
in creation of iron and steel as well as a strengthening agent in alloys based on
titanium. Metal, of a bright gray color, that is soft and ductile, and possesses
good structural strength and corrosion resistance.
- to unite or join two or more pieces of metal by applying heat,
pressure or an intermediate material.
- A chemical element (symbol Zn), that is obtained from ores that often
also contain copper, silver, lead and other elements and is primarily used as a
protective coating for steel. Metal, of a lustrous bluish-white color, which in
its pure form at even room temperature is malleable and ductile.
- Zinc plating or applying a thin layer of zinc to a metal part
is achieved by placing an electric current to the metal parts immersed in a solution
of zinc salt. The layer of zinc provides some protection from corrosion, but is
not strong enough to be used on outdoor products, and may be applied to steel, brass,
copper and aluminum.
- A chemical element (symbol Zr) that is produced from chemical
processing of sand containing zircon, and is one of the ingredients used in production
of steel. Metal, of a steel-gray color, that is very strong, ductile and possesses
great corrosion resistance, especially at high temperatures.
A | B | C | D
| E | F | G | H
| I | J | K | L
| M | N | O | P
| R | S | T | V
| W | Z